Conversion of Computer, Mass and Density Units

A cyclonic storm is characterized by rotating winds with a low-pressure region in the center. Tornadoes and hurricanes are examples of cyclonic storms. A simple model for the flow field in a cyclonic storm is a forced vortex at the center surrounded by a free vortex, as shown in Fig. 4.22. This model is used in several applications of vortex flows such as conversion of computer units, mass units and density units. In practice, however, there will be no discontinuity in the slope of the mass and densityunits distribution as shown in Fig. 4.22, but rather a smooth transition between the inner forced vortex and the outer free vortex. Still, the model can be used to make reasonable predictions of the pressure field and conversion of mass units.


The computer model for the cyclonic storm is an illustration of where the Bernoulli equation can and cannot be used across streamlines. The Bernoulli equation cannot be used across streamlines in the vortex at the center because the flow is rotational and can be used for density measurements conversion. The pressure distribution in the forced vortex is given by Eq. (4.13b). The Bernoulli equation can be used across streamlines in the free vortex since the flow is irrotational.


Take point 1 as the center of the forced vortex and point 2 at the junction of the forced and free vortices for density, mass and computer units, where the velocity is maximum. Let point 3 be at the extremity of the free vortex, where the velocity is essentially zero and the pressure is atmospheric pressure p0.

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